Possessions (US&P) is obtained from the
Administrator, National Telecommunications and
Information Administration (NTIA), Washington, D.C.
The CNO establishes overall policy for spectrum
management within the Department of the Navy.
Authority for using radio frequencies by Navy and
Marine Corps activities within the area of responsibility
of a unified or specified commander is obtained from
the Joint Chiefs of Staff through the USMCEB. Within
the Department of the Navy, the Naval Electromagnetic
Spectrum Center (NAVEMSCEN) authorizes
frequency assignment applications and ensures all
prerequisites are completed.
Certain types of messages require special-handling
markings in addition to that provided by the security
classification. Among these markings are such
designations as Caveat, Restricted Data (RD), Formerly
Restricted Data (FRD), LIMDIS, FOUO, EFTO,
SPECAT, PERSONAL FOR, NATO RESTRICTED,
and ALLIED RESTRICTED.
When used with special-handling instructions, the
word caveat means a warning by authoritative orders
that directs or imposes one to protect an element,
usually special message traffic.
Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data
The marking Restricted Data (RD) is applied to
all data concerned with the design, manufacture, or use
of nuclear weapons. Also included in this category is
the special nuclear material used in energy production.
The marking Formerly Restricted Data (FRD)
pertains to defense information that has been removed
from the RD category but must still be safeguarded as
classified defense information. FRD material cannot be
released to foreign nationals except under specific
For Official Use Only (FOUO)
FOUO is the designation used on official
information not requiring a security classification but
which must be withheld and protected from public
release. Unclassified messages containing FOUO
information must have the abbreviation FOUO after
the designation UNCLAS.
Encrypt for Transmission Only (EFTO)
Certain categories of unclassified messages may be
identified as having potential value if subject to
analysis, but do not meet the criteria for security
classification. The special designation EFTO was
established to protect these unclassified messages
during electrical transmission.
EFTO is not required on unclassified messages
addressed exclusively among Navy, Marine Corps, and
Coast Guard commands. EFTO is authorized for use
within the Department of Defense, including the
National Security Agency. However, EFTO is required
on FOUO messages addressed to DOD activities
outside the continental United States. Bear in mind,
however, that just because information is FOUO, it is
not automatically EFTO, and vice versa.
As we mentioned earlier, EFTO is a transmission
marking for unclassified messages. FOUO markings,
however, define a certain category of information
requiring special handling. Neither FOUO nor EFTO
markings are security classifications; both are
special-handling designations. You can find detailed
information on EFTO and FOUO markings in Basic
Operational Communications Doctrine (U), NWP 4
The SPECAT marking means special category.
SPECAT messages are classified messages identified
with a special project or subject. SPECAT messages
require special-handling procedures in addition to the
handling procedures for the security classification of
the message. There are four SPECAT categories:
LIMDIS (Limited Distribution)
The LIMDIS designator is applied only to classified
messages which, because of the subject matter, require
limited distribution within the addressed activity.
SPECAT EXCLUSIVE FOR (SEF);
SPECAT Single Integrated Operational
Plan-Extremely Sensitive Information