l Whether the fiber must be twisted to make the
connection; multiple fibers cannot run through
the same connector if it is to be twisted.
The connectors differ in the way the fiber is
attached to the connector itself. You can either use
epoxy to glue the fiber into the connector, or you can
crimp the connector and the ferrule together using a
special crimping tool.
CONNECTOR GENDERS. Connector gender
basically refers to whether a connector has plugs or
sockets. The gender is important because the elements
being connected must have complementary genders.
A male connector is known as a plug; the female
connector is known as a jack. With a few exceptions,
such as the IBM® data connectors and certain fiber-
optic connectors, all connector types have distinct
genders. Figure 2-5 shows examples of male and
CONNECTOR MECHANISMS. The
connection mechanism defines how the physical
contact is made to allow the signal to pass from one side
of the connection to the other.
Connection mechanisms differ in how sturdy they
are. For example, the pin-and-socket connection at a
serial port can be wobbly without extra support from the
screws on either side of the plug. On the other hand,
fiber-optic connectors must be cut to precise
proportions and must not allow any play in the
The inspection of the components when they are
received is limited to checking for any physical damage.
This damage will include:
. Any damage to the packing material
l Damage to the case
. Hidden damage on the inside of the cabinet
The inspection that is conducted needs to be as
thorough as possible, since any damage discovered
must be reported to the supplier. This inspection also
needs to be accomplished as soon as the equipment
arrives, because the longer you wait, the less likely it
becomes that the supplier will replace the equipment.
Network testing is changing significantly because
of the growth of digital network capability. Testing in
the voice network has always been considered as much
of an art as a science because of the variable nature of
the different impairments encountered. The digital
net work has been designed with more diagnostic
capability, making it much easier to identify and isolate
problems. The testing is done in the carrier
environment, not in the user environment.
Network Testing Methods
There are three basic approaches to network testing,
Figure 2-5.Connector genders.